Psychological theories of chronic pain

Any therapy must be clearly directed and all staff should operate under a consistent set of principles. Methods of investigation have also improved. Patients will become more comfortable using these techniques as they recognize the benefit of using them in daily situations.

By the second half of the 19th Century, however, pain was considered sensorial and organic causes were offered to explain all pains, even those without an obvious basis in tissue damage or organic disease.

The recent New Zealand Government review into LBP, its subsequent published guidelines, and resultant growing acceptance of the "Yellow Flags" concept is a pertinent example [ 17 - 19 ]. Also, the intensity of pain often refers well to the extent of damage.

Modern Theories of Chronic Pain

However, it is included here as the angry pain patient is often poorly understood. They should also use the skills learned for self-regulation.

Through the use of biofeedback the person learns to alter physiological processes that contribute to pain. For the chronic pain patient, the presentation is much more complex and the treatment interdisciplinary and programmatic. Training patients in self-hypnosis.

Psychological approaches to the management of pain. Psychophysiological Approaches Examines the influence of mental events thoughts memories and emotions on physical changes which produce pain, for a comprehensive review see Flor and Turk [ 12 ].

The eventual goal is to reduce tension by recall, thus eliminating the need to actively tense muscle groups. Increasing hypnotic susceptibility by brain wave feedback. These messages can be over-ridden by other signals produced by the treatments listed previously. Reports of its use and benefits date back to the 19th century.

Improvement in pain management can often be brought about by very simple, if subtle, changes in clinical practice. This is a detrimental condition.

Anyone who is in the business of hurting people as part of their routine work will understand that different people respond differently to the same procedure under the same circumstances, and that the same people respond to the same procedure differently at different times or under different circumstances.

Expect patients to talk about the pain often, as it is being brought repeatedly into attentional focus for them.

During this time the clinician can address the misconceptions and fears about hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,83, No pill, by itself, will cure chronic pain. Analgesia or pain relief is achieved by suggesting to the person that the pain is diminishing, changing, or that the area is becoming numb.

The effectiveness of hypnosis usually depends on two factors: Chronic pain is a condition that affects a person physically, psychologically, and environmentally.

Psychological approaches to pain management

Biofeedback in the management of chronic pain. One of the earliest reports of hypnotic analgesia occurred in India when a surgeon used the technique while performing amputations in India.

There are several rationales for the use of biofeedback to treat chronic pain. The relaxation training provides the technique by which to alter physiological processes and the biofeedback is used to improve the relaxation response.

Heart-rate, blood pressure increases, blood vessels narrow as well as several hormone responses such as adrenaline and cortisol as well as the neurotransmitter serotonin all increasing.

Progressive muscle relaxation is the most common approach utilized. The respondent pain may eventually evolve into operant and persisting pain if the environment offers pain contingent reinforcement.Although the theory accounts for phenomena that are primarily mental in nature - that is, pain itself as well as some of the psychological factors influencing it - its scientific beauty is that it provides a physiological basis for the complex phenomenon of pain.

Pain management is an area of modern medicine which utilises the multi-disciplinary team to help ease the pain and suffering of patients living with long-term pain. The fact is that the operant model of chronic pain does not have as strong a body of empirical evidence to back it up as its patrons would like.

As a result of the questionable reliability of the operant theory, many researchers have begun to actively espouse the cognitive-behavioural theories of chronic pain. First, I will introduce the relevant psychological theory, focusing on the clinical utility of the research findings.

Secondly, I will expand on the psychology of the chronic pain patient. Finally, I will present the evidence for psychologically orientated therapies for chronic pain management. Hypnosis has been used to treat a variety of pain syndromes, including headache, chronic back pain, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and cancer pain.

Hypnosis as a psychological tool in the management of chronic pain has received mixed acceptance, mainly related to the lack of understanding and fear.

Apr 27,  · Psychological research has focused on identifying those people with acute pain who are at risk of transitioning into chronic and disabling pain, in the hope of producing better outcomes. Several multicausal Cognitive Behavioural models dominate the research landscape in this area.

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Psychological theories of chronic pain
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